1. fragrant (adj): having a pleasant or sweet smell
Cinnamon is a sweet, fragrant spice.


2. biblical (adj): relating to or based on the Bible
Cinnamon was known in biblical times, and is mentioned in several books of the Bible.


3. condiment (n): a substance, such as salt, that you add to food to improve its taste
The ability to purchase an expensive condiment.


4. exotic (adj): unusual and exciting because of coming a distant foreign country
an expensive condiment from the exotic’ East.


5. at someone’s disposal (phr): available to be used by someone
At a banquet, a host would offer guests a plate with various spices piled upon it as a sign of the wealth at his or her disposal.


6. the elite (n): the richest, most powerful, best-educated, or best-trained group in a society
The European middle classes began to desire the lifestyle of the elite, including their consumption of spices.


7. merchant (n): a person or business that buys and sells goods
At that time, cinnamon was transported by Arab merchants.


8. monopoly (n): complete control of an area of business
The English arrived on Ceylon, thereby displacing the Dutch from their control of the cinnamon monopoly.


9. exorbitant (adj): unreasonably high
Because Venice had a virtual monopoly of the trade, the Venetians could set the price of cinnamon exorbitantly high.


10. cultivation (n): the process of growing crops or plants
Before Europeans arrived on the island, the state had organized the cultivation of cinnamon.


11. ethnic (adj): relating to a particular race of people
People belonging to the ethnic group called the Salagama would peel the bark off young shoots of the cinnamon plant in the rainy season.


12. enslave (v): to make someone a slave
When the Portuguese arrived, they enslaved many other members of the Ceylonese native population.


13. ally yourself to/with sb (phr): to start to support someone
The Dutch allied themselves with Kandy, an inland kingdom on Ceylon.


14. expel (v): to force someone to leave a school, organization, or country
By 1658, the Dutch had permanently expelled the Portuguese from the island.


15. lucrative (adj): producing a lot of money
gaining control of the lucrative cinnamon trade


16. appetite (n): the feeling that you want to eat food
Europe’s ever-increasing appetite for cinnamon


17. supersede (v): to replace something, especially something older or more old-fashioned
The spice trade overall was superseded by the rise of trade in coffee, tea.


18. reinforce (v): to make stronger
reinforce the bonds between prairie voles


19. trigger (v): to cause something to start
triggers the motherly behaviour


20. empathetic (adj): showing an ability to understand and share the feelings of another
One sniff of oxytocin can make a person more trusting, empathetic, generous and cooperative.


21. emerge (v): to appear, to come out of something
Oxytocin’s role in human behaviour first emerged in 2005.


22. groundbreaking (adj): using new methods, innovative
in a groundbreaking experiment.


23. placebo (n): a substance that is not medicine but that a patient who is taking it believes is medicine, and so they get better
The team found that participants who had sniffed oxytocin via a nasal spray beforehand invested more money than those who received a placebo instead.


24. charitable (adj): kind, and not judging other people in a severe way
People become more charitable, better at reading emotions on others’ faces.


25. fuel (v): to make something increase or become stronger
The results fuelled the view that oxytocin universally enhanced the positive aspects of our social nature.


26. disposition (n): the particular type of character that a person naturally has
a person’s disposition


27. conduct (v): to organize and perform a particular activity
studies conducted by Carolyn DeClerck of the University of Antwerp, Belgium


28. favouritism (n): the practice of giving unfair preferential treatment to one person or group
Volunteers given oxytocin showed favouritism.


29. bias (n): inclination or prejudice for or against one person or group
It appears that oxytocin strengthens biases.


30. goodwill (n): helpful, or cooperative feelings or attitude
promoting general goodwill


31. subtlety (n): a small but important detail
There were signs of these subtleties from the start.


32. take (no) notice of (phr): (not) pay attention; (not) show signs of interest
Researchers took no notice of such findings.


33. attuned (to) (adj): receptive or aware
making people more attuned to their social environment.


34. perplexing (adj): confusing, baffling, very puzzling
Perhaps we should not be surprised that the oxytocin story has become more perplexing.


35. manifest (v): show, demonstrate
These basic processes could manifest in different ways.


36. identify (v): to recognize
Most managers can identify the major trends of the day.


37. profound (adj): serious, showing serious thought and wise ideas
recognize the less obvious but profound ways these trends are influencing consumers


38. aspiration (n): something that you hope to achieve
consumers’ aspirations, attitudes, and behaviors


39. jeopardize (v): to put something in danger of being harmed or damaged
They can jeopardize a company by ceding to rivals the opportunity to transform the industry.


40. engender (v): to cause a feeling or attitude to exist
engender new value propositions in their core markets


41. adept (at) (adj): skillful
adept at analyzing and exploiting trends


42. opulence (n): great wealth or luxuriousness
The Coach brand had been a symbol of opulence and luxury for nearly 70 years.


43. downturn (n): a reduction in economic or business activity
the economic downturn of 2008


44. mindset (n): a way of thinking about things
Coach saw the new consumer mindset as an opportunity for innovation and renewal.


45. commitment (n): a promise to do something, enthusiasm for something
the company’s commitment to protecting the environment


46. augment (v): to increase the size or value of something
Tesco has augmented its business with these innovations.


47. infuse (v): to fill someone or something with an emotion or quality
infusing its value proposition with a green streak


48. incorporate (v): to include something as part of something larger
to incorporate elements of a seemingly irrelevant trend into one’s core offerings


49. apparel (n): clothes of a special type
a focus on athletic apparel


50. reinvigorate (v): to strengthen something or someone
The infuse-and-augment strategy will allow you to reinvigorate the category.


51. counteract (v): to reduce the negative effect of something by doing something that has an opposite effect
The ME2 counteracted some of the widely perceived negative impacts of digital gaming devices.

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